Use resistant varieties like IR 50, CR 1009, Co 46, PTB 2 and PTB 18.
Nursery should not be raised near the lamp posts
Apply neem cake @ 12.5 kg/20 cent nursery as basal dose
Maintain the water level at 2.5 cm for 3 days
Brown plant leafhopper (Nilaparvata lugens)
Use resistant varieties like Aruna, Karnataka, Karthika, Krishnaveni, Makon,
Abhey, Asha, Divya, Py 3, Co 42, Ptb 33 and Ptb 21.
Avoid close planting and provide 30 cm rogue spacing at every 2.5 m to reduce the pest incidence.
Control irrigation by intermittent draining
Set up light traps to monitor pest population and to control
Release of natural enemies like Lycosa pseudoannulata, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis
Drain the water before the use of insecticides and direct the spray towards the base of the plants
Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% (25 kg/ha) (or) neem oil 2% (10 l/ha)
White backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera)
Release of egg parasitoid, Anagrus sp. and adults and nymphs of the dryinid
Pachygonatopus sp. Predators recorded on the insect are Coccinella arcuata, Cyrtorrhinus lividipennis, Tytthus parviceps
Mealybug (Brevennia rehi)
The mealy bug is parasitised by Adelencyrtus sp., Dolihoceros sp., Gyranusa sp., Parasyrphophagus sp.,Xanthoencyrtus sp and predated upon by Gitonides perspicax, Leucopis luteicomis, Scymnus sp., Pullus sp.,Anatrichus pygmaeus, Mepachymerus ensifer.
Remove the grasses from the bunds and trim the bunds during the main field preparation before transplanting.
Remove and destroy the affected plants.
Rice black bug (Scotinophora lurida and S. coarctata)
Keep the field free from weeds and grasses
Drain the excess water from the field
Set up light trap during the full moon period to attract large number of bugs and kill
Conserve the predators viz., spiders, coccinellids and wasps to check the pest
Ducks can be allowed in the field to pick up the bugs
Rice earhead bug (Leptocorisa acuta)
Botanical powder formulations
Neem seed kernel extract 5%
Notchi leaf powder extract 5%
Ipomoea leaf powder extract 5%
Prosopis leaf powder extract 5%
Paddy stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas)
Grow resistant varieties like Ratna, Jaya, TKM 6, IR 20 and IR 26
Clip the tip of seedlings before transplanting to eliminate egg masses
Avoid close planting and continuous water stagnation at early stages
Collect and destroy the egg masses
Pull out and destroy the affected tillers
Set up light traps to attract and kill the moths
Harvest the crop upto the ground level and disturb the stubbles with plough immediately after the harvest
Release the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum on 30 and 37 DAT twice @ 5 ml/ha/release followed by monocrotophos 36 SL spray thrice @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT reduce the damage.
Apply Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki and neem seed kernel extract in the combination of 2.5 kg/ml and 1% to reduce the oviposition by the stemborer.
Gall midge (Orseolia oryzae)
Encourage early planting of the crop to escape from infestation
Use resistant varieties like MDU-3, Shakthi, Vikram, Sureka
Harvest the crop and plough immediately
Remove the alternate host and adjust the time of planting
Use quick growing varieties
Set up light trap @ 1 / ha as a monitoring device
Infra red light trap attracts gall midge effectively
Release larval parasitoid: Platygaster oryzae through parasitized galls @ 1 per 10 m2 in the main field at 10 DAT.
The carabid beetle, Ophionia indica is an effective predator.
Conserve the spider predators like Tetragnatha and Argiope catenulata in rice ecosystem to feed on the adult midge.
Swarming caterpillar (Spodoptera mauritia)
Release larval parasitoids Apanteles ruficrus, Meteorus sp., Charops bicolor,
C. dominans, Drino unisetosa, Pseudoperichaeta orientalis, Strobliomyia aegyptia, Pseudogonia cinerascens, Tachinia fallan, Cuphocera varia, Sturmia inconspicua, Chelonus sp., Euplectrus euplexiae, E. spodopterae.
Pupa by Netelia sp., Actia sp., Drino sp. and Isomera cinerascens, Hexamermis sp. a parasitic nematode parasitises the larva.
The vertebrate predators of the larvae are Corvus splendens, C. macrorhynchus, Bubalcus coromandus, Ardeela grayi, Amaurovius phoenicocurus, Acridotheres tristis.
Flood the nursery to expose the hiding larvae to the surface and thus birds pick
Kerosenate the water while irrigation to suffocate and kill the larvae.
Allow the ducks into the field to feed on the larvae.
Rice case worm (Nymphula depunctalis)
Release larval parasitoids viz., Elasmus sp., Apanteles sp., Bracon sp., Hormiues sp.
Release pupal parasitoids viz., Pediobius sp., Apsilops sp., Eupteromalus parnarae
Drain water from the field
Dislodge the cases by running a rope over the young crop
Leaf folder (or) leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis)
Use resistant varieties like TNAU LFR 831311, Cauveri, Akashi, TKM-6, IET 7511, IET 9225 and IET 9797.
Clipping of affected leaves reduces the pest population.
Keep the bunds clean by trimming them and remove the grassy weeds.
Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizer.
Set up light traps to attack and kill the moths.
Release Trichogramma chilonis on 37, 44 and 51 DAT thrice followed by three sprays of monocrotophos 36 SL @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT.
Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% @ 25 kg .
Grasshopper (Hieroglyphus banian)
Expose the eggs to be picked up by birds after ploughing and trim the bunds
Bio-control agents such as Cacallus spp., Barycomus spp. and Seelio spp., which are egg parasites should be encouraged.
Short horned grasshopper (Oxya nitidula)
Expose the eggs during summer ploughing and they will be picked up by birds.
Spiny beetle / Rice hispa (Dicladispa armigera)
The leaf tips containing blotch mines should be plucked and destroyed
Manual collection and killing of beetles with hand nets may help in reducing the population of the pest.
Integrated Pest Management in Rice
A. Cultural method
Remove / destroy stubbles after harvest and keep the field free from weeds.
Trim and plaster the bunds of rice field to expose the eggs of grasshoppers and to eliminate the bugs breeding in grasses.
Form the buds narrow and short to reduce the damage by rodents.
Use resistant varieties wherever available.
Provide effective drainage wherever there is problem of BPH.
Clip the tip of seedling before transplanting to prevent the carry over of egg masses of rice yellow stem borer from nursery to mainfield.
Organise synchronized planting wherever possible.
Leave 30 cm rogue space at every 2.5 m to reduce damage by BPH and rodents.
Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers.
Use irrigation water judiciously (Alternative webbing x drying reduce BPH and case worm).
Remove the egg masses of stem borer in the mainfield.
B. Mechanical methods
Dig out the rat burrows and destroy the rats and young ones at the beginning of the season.
Set up light traps to monitor and control pests.
Set up-bow traps to kill rodents.
C. Biological methods
Release Trichogramma japonicum on 30 and 37 DAT twice 5 ml/ha/release against stem borer.
Release Trichogramma chilonis on 37, 44 and 51 DAT (Thrice) @ 5 ml/ha/release against leaf folder.
Release of Platygaster oryzae parasitized galls @ 1 per 10 m2 in the mainfield on, 10 DAT against gall midge.
Set up owl perches to reduce rat damage.
D. Plant products
Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% (25 kg/ha), neem oil 3% (15 lit/ha) to control brown planthopper.
Spray botanical powder formulation viz., NSKE, Vitex negundo (Notchi), Prosopis juliflora and Ipomoea carnealeaf extract 5% to control earhead bug and black bug.